info extracted from US Army Field Manual 3-5, NBC Decontamination
- Iodine water purification tablets: effective against B agents; follow instructions on container
- Liquid chlorine bleach (5%): effective against B agents; dissolve 1/3 cup per 10 gallons water, leave items in solution 30 minutes and stir occasionally to ensure surfaces are all wet, rinse thoroughly. Do not use chlorine decon solutions more than once!
- Formalin (formaldehyde): effective against B agents; recommended as interior decontaminant for relatively closed areas. Allow vapors to remain for 16 hours in closed structure, then aerate until odor is no longer objectionable.
- Sodium hypochlorite (household bleach): effective against B agents, blister and V agents. Reacts rapidly with aforementioned C agents. Corrosive to metals unless rinsed, dried, and lubricated after decon. For bio decon, dilute by adding 2 parts bleach to 10 parts water. For decon of cotton clothing and utensils, dilute 1/2 cup bleach to one gallon water.
- Calcium hypochlorite (HTH or HTB; common swimming pool chemical): effective against B agents, lewisite, and V agents. Reacts rapidly with mustard and lewisite. Allow 15 minutes contact time for B agent decon. Always wear protective mask and rubber gloves; burns skin, destroys clothing and emits toxic vapor; undiluted will burn on contact with VX, HD, or DS2 (military decon liquid). For chemical decon: mix 5lb. HTH or HTB to 6 gallons water. For bio decon: mix 1lb. HTH or HTB to 6 gallons water.
- 2-Propanone (acetone; common fingernail polish remover or paint thinner): effective against C agents. Scrubbing increases effectiveness. Extremely flammable. Does not neutralize agents; good for flushing and physically removing.
- Ethylene glycol (common automotive antifreeze): effective against C agents. Mix 50/50 with water. Does not neutralize, only flushes surface contamination. Runoff should be considered contaminated.
- Solvents (gasoline, diesel fuel, JP-4, kerosene, similar solvents): effective against C agents. Contaminated areas should be scrubbed with decon agents then rinsed. May damage rubber and plastic. Most are extremely flammable.
- Sodium hydroxide (lye or caustic soda): effective against B agents, G agents, and lewisite. Neutralizes G agents. Allow to remain on C contaminated surface for 15 minutes. Weak protective mask, gloves, boots, and clothing. Mix 10lb. lye to 12gal. water to make a 10% solution. Mix in iron or steel container, never zinc, aluminum, or tin. Add lye to water to prevent spattering and boiling.
- Sodium carbonate (common washing soda, soda ash, or sal soda): effective against G and CN chemical agents. Mix 10lb. decontaminant to 12 gallons water.
- Ammonia or ammonium hydroxide (household ammonia): effective against G chemical agents. Slower acting than sodium hydroxide. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus or special purpose mask.
- Water: effective against NBC agents. Flushes contamination from surfaces; does not neutralize.
- Steam: effective against NBC agents. Same as water. Scrubbing combined with steaming is more effective than steaming alone.
- Absorbents (sawdust, earth, ashes, rags, etc): effective against C agents. Used to remove surface contamination. Absorbent becomes contaminated and must be properly disposed of.
- Sealants (concrete, asphalt, earth, paint, etc): effective against NBC agents. 12 inches of earth provide good protection against fallout (3 inches reduces dose rate by about one half). One inch of concrete or asphalt completely absorbs alpha and beta radiation. One quarter inch of grout shields alpha and beta radiation. Burying items contaminated by B agents is effective in sealing off contamination. Four inches of earth provide good protection from C agents.
How to Decon Specific Materials: Very comprehensive, using above chemicals.